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Papers Published in the International Journal of Sediment Research
Release time: 2021-12-21

 

Volume 37, No.2, 2022 

Pages 139-286   (April 2021)

 

1. Invisible face of COVID-19 pandemic on the freshwater environment: An impact assessment on the sediment quality of a cross boundary river basin in Turkey
Cem Tokatli
Pages 139-150

2. Sediment transport mechanisms and selective removal of soil particles under unsteady-state conditions in a sheet erosion system
Elham Sirjani, Majid Mahmoodabadi, Artemi Cerdà
Pages 151-161

3. Theory of delayed response in river morphodynamics: Applicability and limitations
Chenge An, Xudong Fu
Pages 162-172

4. Distribution of heavy metals in water and sediment of an urban river in a developing country: A probabilistic risk assessment
Mir Mohammad Ali, Saima Rahman, Md Saiful Islam, Md Refat Jahan Rakib, Shaharior Hossen, Md Zillur Rahman, Tapos Kormoker, Abubakr M.Idris, Khamphe Phoungthong
Pages173-187

5. Characteristics and variation law of wind-blown sand delivered to the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River under a changing environment
Zhichun Yue, Ximin Yuan, Lugan Cao, FuchangTian, Chao Han, Hongwu Zhang
Pages 188-201

6. Trace elements migrating from tailings to rock varnish laminated sediments in an old mining region from Nelson, Nevada, USA
Douglas B. Sims, Amanda C. Hudson, John E. Keller, Michael Strange, Andressa Cristhy Buch, David Ferrari, Giavanna M. Fernandez, Juan Garcia-Hernandez, Bailey D. Kesl, Sean Torres
Pages 202-213

7. Impacts of dams and land-use changes on hydromorphology of braided channels in the Lhasa River of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
Yuchi You, Zhiwei Li, Peng Gao, Tiesong Hu
Pages 214-228

8. Process-based suspended sediment carrying capacity of silt-sand sediment in wave conditions
Liqin Zuo, Dano Roelvink, Yongjun Lu, Guanghui Dong
Pages 229-237

9. Quantifying the actual sediment load flux into Lake Baikal: A case study of the main tributary – The Selenga River (Russia)
Tatiana Potemkina, Vladimir Potemkin
Pages 238-247

10. Implications of turbulent shear on clay floc break-up along the Atlantic estuary (Bouregreg), Morocco
Krishnamoorthy Lakshmi Ammal Priya, Soufiane Haddout, Joan Cecilia Catubig Casila
Pages 248-257

11. Porosity of bimodal and trimodal sediment mixtures
Chamil Perera, Weiming Wu, Ian Knack
Pages 258-271

12. Gravel excavation and geomorphic evolution of the mining affected river in the upstream reach of the Yangtze River, China
Yi Xiao, Wenjie Li, Shengfa Yang
Pages 272-286

1. Invisible face of COVID-19 pandemic on the freshwater environment: An impact assessment on the sediment quality of a cross boundary river basin in Turkey
Cem Tokatli
Pages 139-150
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.003
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000536
Abstract: In the current research, the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown period on sediment quality of the Meri?-Ergene River Basin was evaluated by determining the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in sediment samples collected from 25 sampling points in the basin. Also some important ecological indicators including potential ecological risk index (PERI), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), biological risk index (BRI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and some important statistical indicators including the Pearson correlation index (PCI), factor analysis (FA), and cluster analysis (CA) were applied to collected data. Levels of all the investigated PTEs in sediment of the basin show significant differences between the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods. The PTE contents have considerably decreased by 12.8%–45.4% during the lockdown period. Similarly, the results of applied sediment quality risk assessment indices showed significant improvement and the values have decreased by 22.4%–35.8%. In the lockdown period, reduction of industrial activities or limited production at many industrial facilities located in the basin reduced the amount of effluent, leading to significant improvement in sediment quality.
Keywords: Meri?–Ergene River basin; Sediment quality; Ecological–statistical indicators; COVID-19 pandemic; Lockdown period

2. Sediment transport mechanisms and selective removal of soil particles under unsteady-state conditions in a sheet erosion system
Elham Sirjani, Majid Mahmoodabadi, Artemi Cerdà
Pages 151-161
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.006
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000573
Abstract: Selective removal of particles and nutrients by water erosion is a key factor in soil erosion studies. Most agricultural soils are located on gentle slopes where fertility is high; however, until now, the main attention on sediment transport mechanisms was paid to high-slope gradients, where soil erosion is intense, but soils are less productive. Despite the importance of sediment size distribution (SSD) and transport mechanisms under unsteady-state conditions, few studies have been done on this issue. Higher sediment concentrations in the early stages of the runoff indicate the need to deal with unsteady-state conditions. To address this issue, sheet erosion experiments were done using a 0.2 m by 1 m tilting flume under controlled laboratory conditions. Six inflow rates (75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mL/s) were applied on two contrasting soils, including an adjacent agricultural soil and a not cultivated soil (namely Cropland soil and Control soil, respectively) at two low slope gradients (1.5% and 2%). No rill formation was observed during the experiments. The sediment-laden runoff was sampled during unsteady-state flow to determine the SSDs and sediment transport mechanisms of eroded particles for unsteady-state conditions. The results indicated different trends in the selective removal of sediment particles depending on hydraulic conditions and soil aggregate size. The contribution of suspension-saltation (SS) to the total sediment load for the Cropland and Control soils varied from 22% to 68% and from 35% to 59%, respectively, while up to 78% and 65% of soil particles were transported by bed load (BL), respectively. However, SS and BL indicated a reverse trend with stream power. The Cropland soil showed a single peak in the SSD at low stream powers because of the selective removal of fine particles (0.042 mm), whereas the SSD was shifted to a bimodal distribution at higher stream powers with the selective depletion of both fine (≤ 0.084 mm) and coarse (1.5 mm) particles. The Control soil experienced a unimodal SSD in a range of sizes between 0.109 and 0.175 mm for all stream powers. The findings of the current study highlight the need for further study on the erosion of low-slope agricultural soils, where small stream powers can remove fine and fertile soil particles.
Keywords: Aggregate breakdown; Bed load; Stream power; Suspension-saltation; Tilting flume

3. Theory of delayed response in river morphodynamics: Applicability and limitations
Chenge An, Xudong Fu
Pages 162-172
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.07.004
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000457
Abstract: The delayed response of fluvial rivers to external disturbances has been described by many researchers. To simulate such behavior, the rate law model (or the delayed response model) was developed by previous researchers, and has been applied to a series of river morphological problems. However, to date, the applicability of the rate law model has not been fully understood. In the current paper, a physically-based analysis of the rate law model is presented to assess the responses of bed elevation and the grain size of surface sediment, using the response of the Shi-ting River, China, after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an example. First, a physically-based river morphodynamic model is implemented to reproduce the post-earthquake adjustments of the Shi-ting River. Next, the mathematical properties of the Hirano–Exner equation, which describes the dynamics of both bed elevation and surface texture, are analyzed. It is shown that the dynamics of bed elevation are dominated by a diffusion process and the analytical solution for bed elevation has a similar mathematical formulation to that of the rate law model. Thus, the rate law and morphodynamic models similarly predict the adjustment of bed elevations. In contrast, the dynamics of bed surface texture are controlled by both advection and diffusion processes. The advection and diffusion processes dominate adjustments over the short (annual to decadal scale) and long (century to millenial scale) terms, respectively. These physics produce the multi-scale and non-monotonic character of the adjustment of bed surface texture. As a result, the rate law model is incapable of describing the adjustment of bed surface texture. These findings highlight the applicability and limitations of the rate law model in simulating river morphodynamic processes.
Keywords: Rate law; River morphodynamics; Hirano–Exner equation; Advection; Diffusion; Multi-scale processes

4. Distribution of heavy metals in water and sediment of an urban river in a developing country: A probabilistic risk assessment
Mir Mohammad Ali, Saima Rahman, Md Saiful Islam, Md Refat Jahan Rakib, Shaharior Hossen, Md Zillur Rahman, Tapos Kormoker, Abubakr M.Idris, Khamphe Phoungthong
Pages173-187
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000524
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.002
Abstract: River water and sediment embody environmental characteristics that give valuable eco-environmental information. Due to rapid industrialization, the aquatic environment of any urban river can be seriously polluted by heavy metals (HMs). The global concern is caused by heavy metal pollution because of its potential harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. In the Bhairab River, Bangladesh, surface sediment concentrations of globally alarming toxic metals such as arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) were measured to determine the ecological and human health risks of the riverine ecosystem. The average As, Cr, Cd, and Pb concentrations in water were 3.55, 31.74, 1.44, and 23.82 μg/L, respectively, and in sediment were 4.13, 34.17, 1.66, and 25.46 mg/kg, respectively. During the winter, metals in sediment were higher than during the summer. For most sediment samples, the enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI) of As, Cr, Cd, and Pb indicated moderate contamination. The potential ecological risk (PER) in sediment followed the descending order of Cd > As > Pb > Cr. The contamination level of toxic metals implied that the condition is frightening and probably severely affecting the aquatic ecology of this riverine ecosystem.
Keywords: Toxic metals; Environmental risk; Bioaccumulation; Ecological risk; Bangladesh

5. Characteristics and variation law of wind-blown sand delivered to the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River under a changing environment
Zhichun Yue, Ximin Yuan, Lugan Cao, FuchangTian, Chao Han, Hongwu Zhang
Pages 188-201
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000548
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.004
Abstract: Wind-blown sand is one of the key factors affecting the evolution of sediment transport, erosion, and deposition in rivers crossing desert areas. However, the differences and complex variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of the underlying surface conditions are seldom considered in research on the river inflow of wind-blown sand over a long time period. The Yellow River contains a large amount of sediment. The Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River was selected as the research area of the current study. The reach flows out of Heishanxia and then flows through the Tengger, Hedong, Ulan Buh, and Kubuqi Deserts. In the current study, the wind speed, vegetation coverage, and sand matter on the river basin's surface were analyzed from the perspectives of the river basin surface and riverbank line. The vegetation coverage of the river basin's surface was calculated using the normalized difference vegetation index. Based on the types of sand matter, vegetation coverage, and other underlying surface conditions, the loose particle sediment transport efficiency was determined, the Lettau and Lettau formula for the sediment transport rate was modified, a surface wind-erosion sand flux model was established, and the amount of wind-blown sand transported into the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach was calculated. The results show that, from 1981 to 2014, the annual average amount of wind-blown sand transported into the main stream and tributaries of the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River were 7,310,000 and 13,190,000 t, respectively. The Shizuishan–Bayangole reach received 51% of the total wind-blown sand that transported into the main stream, while the tributaries in the Shidakongdui area were the most important source wind-blown sand, providing 74% of the total wind-blown sand inflow from the tributaries. In recent years, the amount of sand transported into the river of the mainstream and tributaries of the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River has significantly decreased from 1981 to 2002, particularly in 1993–2002, which is mainly the result of the weakening wind speed, increasing vegetation coverage, and embankment construction. More specifically, environmental protection policies led by the government, such as “returning farmland to forest”, have played an important and positive role. Therefore, when regulating the water and sediment in the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River, the issue of wind-blown sand deposition into the river should be fully considered in water and sediment regulation.
Keywords: Yellow River; Wind speed; Vegetation coverage; Regional wind erosion

6. Trace elements migrating from tailings to rock varnish laminated sediments in an old mining region from Nelson, Nevada, USA
Douglas B. Sims, Amanda C. Hudson, John E. Keller, Michael Strange, Andressa Cristhy Buch, David Ferrari, Giavanna M. Fernandez, Juan Garcia-Hernandez, Bailey D. Kesl, Sean Torres
Pages 202-213
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000470
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.08.001
Abstract: The dispersion and influence of soluble and particulate trace elements (TEs) present in the materials from abandoned mines is an imminent problem on terrestrial and aquatic environments. The goal of this research is to provide a broader view of such transport, assessing particle size distribution and TE interactions (e.g., scavenging) with mine tailings and locally derived sediments transported by water in arid region. Sand grains from wash sediment were collected from a dry ephemeral wash in Nelson, Nevada where the Techatticup Mine and Mill worked between 1850 and 1960. Samples were evaluated to determine the association and behavior of certain metals and metalloids including aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc to rock varnish laminated sediments. Results show that some metals and metalloids were more concentrated on larger particles whereas others indicated the opposite tendency. For example, As was greatest on silt fractions and least on coarse fractions, while Se was detected only on silts. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations all increased with decreasing particle size (silt > sand > coarse), whereas Al, Ba, and V showed the opposite trend (silt < sand < coarse). The enrichment factor (EF) of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, and Se were lower in mine tailing sediment treated with wash than those obtained for source material. However in treated wash sediment samples, the high EFs of Ba, Cr, V, and Mn suggested a possible greater affinity of these metals to the Al, Fe, and Mn oxides from the RV sediment. The data found in this study show that transport of contaminated sediments in arid regions could lead to the enrichment of some TEs in down-gradient areas from source materials.
Keywords: Adsorption, Metals Metalloids, Mine tailings, Particle size Transport

7. Impacts of dams and land-use changes on hydromorphology of braided channels in the Lhasa River of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
Yuchi You, Zhiwei Li, Peng Gao, Tiesong Hu
Pages 214-228
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000445
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.07.003
Abstract: Among braided rivers developed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China at very high elevations (>3,500 m), the middle and lower reaches of the Lhasa River have been affected by comprehensive human activities mainly involving dam construction, urbanization, farming, afforestation, and mining. In the current study, the impacts of these human activities on hydrology and morphology of the four braided reaches downstream of a cascaded of two dams are investigated. The study period was divided into 1985–2006 (P1), 2006–2013 (P2), and 2013–2019 (P3), representing the natural and changed flow regimes by dams. Using available daily discharge data at two stations within the four braided reaches, dam-induced hydrological alteration was analyzed based on the indicators of hydrologic alteration and range of variability approach and key discharge proxies were calculated. Remotely sensed images also were selected in the three periods and morphological metrics extracted from them were compared for the four reaches among these periods. Attenuated hydrological regimes were found for only two reaches. The total channel width (Wc) and braiding intensity (BIt) followed different temporal trends among the four reaches. Annual average shift rates of the main channel in the four reaches were higher in the short (P2–P3) than in the long (P1–P2 and P1–P3) periods. The longitudinal changes of Wc and the number of channels did not have any identifiable trend among the four reaches. By linking the morphological changes to quantified spatial and temporal patterns of various human activities, it was found that (1) the two dams had insignificant impact on channel morphology, suggesting that the studied braided river might have a short relaxation time and (2) the evolutional trajectories of morphological changes in most of the four reaches were similar, suggesting that temporal trends of morphological changes due to complex human activities are not affected by the different physiographic settings of the reaches. Continuous exploitation of the valley area requires comprehensive river management strategies for coordinating various human activities.
Keywords: Braided river; Channel morphology; Human activities; Dam impact

8. Process-based suspended sediment carrying capacity of silt-sand sediment in wave conditions
Liqin Zuo, Dano Roelvink, Yongjun Lu, Guanghui Dong
Pages 229-237
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000597
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.007
Abstract: The sediment carrying capacity is one of the fundamental issues in sediment simulation. It is of great importance both in theory and practice to develop process-based approaches for the sediment carrying capacity for a wider range of silt-sand sediment. The current study focuses on the approach for depth-averaged concentration of silt-sand sediment under non-breaking wave conditions. By integrating process-based suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles, new synthetic expressions for depth-averaged SSC for vortex rippled beds and sheet flow conditions were obtained. The proposed expressions involve several basic physical processes, including the effects of bed forms, stratification, hindered settling, mobile bed, etc. A number of experimental datasets were collected for verification and reasonable results were obtained. Discussions were made on the changes of sediment concentration under increasing wave dynamics conditions, which show that the proposed formulas can describe the phenomenon which has been observed in experimental tests that SSC does not always increase when wave dynamics increase due to the effects of bed forms. In short, the current research provides a process-based approach for wave-induced sediment carrying capacity, which is expected to be applicable for numerical modeling and engineering practice.
Keywords: Sediment carrying capacity, Silt sediment, Wave-induced sediment concentration, Depth-averaged equilibrium concentration, Process-based

9. Quantifying the actual sediment load flux into Lake Baikal: A case study of the main tributary – The Selenga River (Russia)
Tatiana Potemkina, Vladimir Potemkin
Pages 238-247
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000500
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.08.004
Abstract: The significant reduction of sediment load flux into Lake Baikal from its main tributary – the Selenga River began in the mid-1970s, and can be explained by climate change and socio-economic activities. Integrated analysis was done of changes in hydro-meteorological parameters (water discharge, sediment load, air temperature, and precipitation) and their tendencies over periods of 1946–1975 (baseline) and 1976–2017 (warming). Changes in natural processes and human activity were negligible during the baseline period. In the warming period, against the background of an increase in temperature, the water discharge had a slight decreasing trend (-13%) whereas the sediment load has significantly decreased (-53%) these are consist with the precipitation change (-9.4%). Analysis of hydro-climatic data using statistical methods showed that in the warming period the greatest reduction in river sediment runoff occurred in the interval 1996–2017. In this period the sediment load was 768 × 103 t/yr, which is less than the average value during the warming period – 1048 × 103 t/yr. Considering sedimentation in the Selenga River delta, the actual sediment load flux from the Selenga River into Lake Baikal amounted to 515 × 103 t/yr, which is three times less than the average multiyear value 1535 × 103 t/yr for observation period (1946–2017).
Keywords: Sediment load, Climate change, Human activity, Selenga River, Lake Baikal

10. Implications of turbulent shear on clay floc break-up along the Atlantic estuary (Bouregreg), Morocco
Krishnamoorthy Lakshmi Ammal Priya, Soufiane Haddout, Joan Cecilia Catubig Casila
Pages 248-257
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000512
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.001
Abstract: Water depth, salinity, current, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were measured along with the grain size distribution of bed sediment along an estuarine longitudinal section. The floc size increased with increase in the percentage of clay and silt, while decreased with increase in the percentage of sand content of bed sediment. The turbulent shear, G, had a direct effect on floc size with its value increasing with increase in G up to a G value of 15 s?1, while an inverse relation existed between floc size and G at higher G (G >15 s?1). Further, higher turbulence enabled sand to get resuspended and cause additional shear leading to the break-up of flocs. An attempt was made to modify G to account for the combined effect of water turbulence (G) and shear imparted by sand (Ga) and the impact of the modification of G on the predictability of floc size was evaluated. A new model was developed which explains floc size in terms of sediment concentration (C), salinity gradient (S), and G for different scenarios based on the value of G. Sensitivity analysis was done for observed floc size (FS) and predicted floc size using four approaches: (I) FS α Cx; (II) FS α Cx S-y; (III)FS α Cx Sy Gz for G<15 s?1 and FS α Cx Sy Gz for G > 15 s?1; and (IV) FS α Cx Sy Gmz for G > 15 s?1 and Gm = G + Ga, where x, y, and z are determined by calibration. It was observed that the predictability of the floc size improved when the turbulence was modified to account for shear imparted by sand so that the coefficient of determination was increased from 0.78 for model III to 0.89 for model IV. Further, the settling velocity was expressed as a function of suspended sediment concentration, turbulent shear, and salinity gradient. The predictability of settling velocity was improved (R2 increased from 0.77 to 0.86) when the additional turbulence created by sand was incorporated in the non-dimensional empirical equation. The study highlights the influence of sand in causing the break-up of flocs and suggests that for turbulence shear values high enough to resuspend sand, and G has to be modified to account for the additional shear imparted by sand in mixed sediment estuarine environments.
Keywords: Floc size; Settling velocity; Turbulent shear; Non-cohesive sediment; Bouregreg estuary; Morocco

11. Porosity of bimodal and trimodal sediment mixtures
Chamil Perera, Weiming Wu, Ian Knack
Pages 258-271
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000603
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.008
Abstract: This study focuses on the prediction of the porosity of nonuniform sediment mixtures, considering the effects of particle packing. A random particle packing model has been developed for the porosity of bimodal mixtures by extending the existing random particle filling theory. Coefficients in the developed model are calibrated by fitting the model to measured data for a variety of bimodal mixtures, including spherical glass particles, rounded quarry grains, and natural sediments. The model coefficients are found to be functions of the diameter ratio of coarse and fine particles, separately for spherical glass particles and natural sediments due to differences in particle shapes. The bimodal mixture model is then extended to trimodal particle mixtures in three approaches: two based on serial packing and one based on random packing. These models are tested against experimental data of six trimodal mixtures with spherical glass beads. The results show that the random packing model and the fine–medium–coarse particle serial packing model predict well the observed trimodal mixture porosities.
Keywords: Porosity; Particle filling; Particle packing; Bimodal mixture; Trimodal mixture

12. Gravel excavation and geomorphic evolution of the mining affected river in the upstream reach of the Yangtze River, China
Yi Xiao, Wenjie Li, Shengfa Yang
Pages 272-286
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S100162792100055X
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.09.005
Abstract: As economic development upstream in the Yangtze River basin has progressed in recent decades, the demand for sediment has rapidly increased and contributed to an expansion in sediment excavation that may affect the river's stability and navigation safety. In the current study, the distribution of gravel mining in the upstream reach of the Yangtze River was investigated using field measurements obtained from 2008 to 2017. An experimental investigation was then done to analyze the bed load behavior in a typical mined channel using a physical river model. Finally, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-sediment transport numerical model was developed to predict the evolution of the mined channel. The results indicate that gravel mining was mainly distributed among the following nine river sections: Tongluoxia–Yibin, Erlong–Xianglutan, Naxi–Jinkou, Binpangqi–Hongyanqi, Chayuqi–Shenbeizui, Yangshipan–Shangbaisha, Dongxikou, Baisha–Wenzhongba, and Jiangjin–Shenzhongba. The gravel shoals near the riverbank have been destroyed, and the bed topography has been altered by up to 1.65 × 109 m3 over the past 10 years. A bed load velocity formula was proposed to describe bed load transport in the mined channel based on dimensional analysis. The recovery process of the excavation pits was slow in both the experiments and simulations, with only 0.12% and 1.39%, respectively, of the mined amounts of gravel being restored. Finally, the recovery rate of the mining pits gradually slowed as the sediment supply from upstream decreased, suggesting that the destroyed gravel shoals rarely returned to their original forms due to the combined operation of hydro-projects in upstream areas and limited sediment storage in the channel.
Keywords: Gravel mining; Bed load transport; Channel evolution; Yangtze River upstream2D numerical model

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