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Papers Published in the International Journal of Sediment Research, Volume 37, No.1, 2022
Release time: 2021-11-09

Pages 1-137 ( February 2021)

 

1. Response of Reynolds stresses and scaling behavior of high-order structure functions to a water-worked gravel-bed surface and its implication on sediment transport
Nadia Penna, Ellora Padhi , Subhasish Dey, Roberto Gaudio
Pages 1-13

2. Sediment transport simulation and design optimization of a novel marsh shoreline protection technology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling
Salman Saki, Grant Besse, Peng Yin, Daniel Gang, Donald Hayes
Pages 14-25

3. Thermal stability of soil organic carbon subjected to water erosion as a function of edaphic factors
Zhongwu Li, Linhui Xiao, Chuxiong Deng, Zaijian Yuan, Chen Liang, Qian Xiong , Zeting Li , Xiaodong Nie
Pages 26-36 

4. Improved bridge pier collar for reducing scour
Christopher Valela, Colin David Rennie, Ioan Nistor
Pages 37-46

5. An improved formula for incipient sediment motion in vegetated open channel flows
Xiang Wang, Wenxin Huai, Zhixian Cao
Pages 47-53

6. Impacts of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes and sediment yield determined using the SWAT model
Edivaldo Afonso de Oliveira Serr?o, Madson Tavares Silva, Thomás Rocha Ferreira, Lorena Concei??o Paiva de Ataide, Cleber Assis dos Santos, Aline Maria Meiguins de Lima, Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva, Francisco de Assis Salviano de Sous, Denis José Cardoso Gomes
Pages 54-69

7. Heavy mineral composition and texture of the recently formed fluvial delta sediment of Lake Nasser/Nubia, Egypt and Sudan
Omran E. Frihy, Essam A. Deabes, Abdelaleem A. Abudia, Ahamed Adawi
Pages 70-82

8. Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and associated risks of trace metals (As, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Hg) from a subtropical river, Gomti, Bangladesh
Abu Sayeed Shafiuddin Ahmed, Mohammad Belal Hossain, Saad Mohammad Omar Faruque Babu, Moshiur Rahman, JunSun, Mohammad Shafiqul Islam Sarker
Pages 83-96

9. Sediment dynamics in the mudbank of the Yangtze River Estuary under regime shift of source and sink
Dai Zhang; Weiming Xie; Jian Shen; Leicheng Guo; Yu Chen; Qing He
Pages 97-109

10. Characterizing and identifying bedforms in the wandering reach of the lower Yellow River
Yuanfeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Guanqing Shen
Pages 110-121

11. Swimming behavior of juvenile silver carp near the separation zone of a channel confluence
Saiyu Yuan, Lei Xu, Hongwu Tang, Yang Xiao, Colin Whittaker
Pages 122-127

12. Abiotic predictors of fine sediment accumulation in lowland rivers
Morwenna McKenzie, Judy England, Ian D.L. Foster, Martin A. Wilkes
Pages 128-137

1. Response of Reynolds stresses and scaling behavior of high-order structure functions to a water-worked gravel-bed surface and its implication on sediment transport
Nadia Penna, Ellora Padhi , Subhasish Dey, Roberto Gaudio
Pages 1-13
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000329
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.06.005
Abstract: The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the interaction between turbulent flow and a gravel bed that mimics the actual roughness structures of a natural bed and its implication on sediment transport. In particular, the response of the Reynolds stresses and the role of intermittency to the bed roughness is the primary focus of the current study. To this end, the flow field, measured with an Acoustice Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), is thoroughly examined, considering the conditional Reynolds shear stresses and the high-order structure functions of velocity. The study results show that the features and the roughness structure of the water-worked gravel-bed (WWGB) have a strong impact on bursting events. The reason for this is attributed to the flow layer above the crest in the WWGBs being primarily affected by sweep events rather than ejection events, although the latter events are prevalent in this flow layer in an immobile, man-made, gravel-bed. These coherent structures, which are primarily responsible for sediment transport, also are the key cause of the presence of an intermittency excess that breaks the Kolmogorov self-similarity hypothesis, leading to multi-fractal behavior of the velocity structure functions.
Keywords: Water-worked bed; Turbulent flow; Sweeps; Ejections; High-order structure functions

2. Sediment transport simulation and design optimization of a novel marsh shoreline protection technology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling
Salman Saki, Grant Besse, Peng Yin, Daniel Gang, Donald Hayes
Pages 14-25
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000317
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.06.004
Abstract: Coastal Louisiana has the nation's most fragile and valuable wetlands, whose loss represents 80% of the total losses in the United States. The severely restricted mobility of conventional shoreline protection structures makes them impossible to be redeployed. The Wave Suppression and Sediment Collection (WSSC) system is a novel technology of high mobility and compatible with existing shoreline protection technologies. Previous laboratory studies on WSSC showed great potential for wave reduction and sediment collection. The current study aimed to optimize the design parameters of WSSC using a validated computational model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and validated using experimental data from the previous laboratory study. Then, a parametric analysis was conducted with a focus on the performance optimization of wave reduction and sediment collection with respect to pipe diameter and face slope. Simulation results showed that the wave reduction efficiency decreased with increasing pipe diameter and face slope. In contrast, the sediment transport efficiency was enhanced by increasing pipe diameter but was not affected significantly by varying face slopes.
Keywords: Breakwaters; Computational fluid dynamics; Sediment transport; Shoreline protection; Coastal engineering; ANSYS FLUENT

3. Thermal stability of soil organic carbon subjected to water erosion as a function of edaphic factors
Zhongwu Li, Linhui Xiao, Chuxiong Deng, Zaijian Yuan, Chen Liang, Qian Xiong , Zeting Li , Xiaodong Nie
Pages 26-36 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000299
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.06.002
Abstract: The stability of soil organic carbon (SOC), as it relates to resistance to decomposition, is important for greenhouse gas emission and climate change. However, the SOC stabilization and its related influencing factors subjected to water erosion remain uncertain. The objective of the current study was to determine the SOC stability under long-term water erosion and to investigate the link between SOC stability and edaphic factors. Soil samples from eroded, depositional, and control sites in a closed watershed in subtropical China were collected. The SOC concentration, carbon functional groups, soil physicochemical properties, and thermal stability of SOC were determined. The study results showed that the primary component of the SOC functional groups was O-alkyl carbon (reached 40%), and its proportion has no significant difference among different sites. The TG-T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the soil organic matter is lost) values indicated that the SOC thermal stability in the eroded topsoil was higher than that of the deposited topsoil. The carbon functional groups were lack of relation with SOC thermal stability (p > 0.05). However, the TG-T50 was significantly positively correlated with the cation exchange capacity and silt, but remarkably negatively correlated with SOC, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, sand, clay, pH, aluminum, specific surface area, and iron oxides. These results indicated that the edaphic factors, which were strongly affected by micro-environment, are the main factors affecting thermal stability of organic carbon. The SOC stabilization under the effects of long-term water erosion should be addressed from the perspective of the ecosystem.
Keywords: Soil erosion; Soil organic matter; Thermogravimetry; Preservation; Stability

4. Improved bridge pier collar for reducing scour
Christopher Valela, Colin David Rennie, Ioan Nistor
Pages 37-46
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000214
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.04.004 
Abstract: This study performed a bridge pier collar comparison for the purpose of reducing scour, while introducing a new collar design. The new collar, referred to as Collar Prototype Number 3, was designed based on an equilibrium scour hole and provides a method of controlling the horseshoe vortex. Numerical modelling was utilized to show the flow field and bed shear stress as a result of using Collar Prototype Number 3. A prototype model of Collar Prototype Number 3 and a flat plate collar were constructed for the purpose of comparing both experimentally under different flow conditions. Collar Prototype Number 3 proved to be an effective device as it reduced scour in terms of the maximum depth downstream of the pier and overall volume, in some instances, by up to 69.7% and 75.7%, respectively. Furthermore, Collar Prototype Number 3 outperformed the flat plate collar, especially because, unlike the flat plate collar, Collar Prototype Number 3 did not experience undermining.
Keywords: Bridge pier; Scour; Horseshoe vortex; Pier collar; Scour countermeasure

5. An improved formula for incipient sediment motion in vegetated open channel flows
Xiang Wang, Wenxin Huai, Zhixian Cao
Pages 47-53
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000287
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.06.001 
Abstract: Quantifying incipient sediment motion in vegetated open channel flow is pivotal for estimating bed load transport and the aquatic ecological environment in rivers. A new formula is developed to predict the critical flow velocity for incipient sediment motion in the presence of emergent vegetation, by incorporating the influence of vegetation drag that characterizes the effects of mean flow and turbulence on sediment movement. The proposed formula is shown to agree with existing experimental data. Moreover, the proposed formula is extended to scenarios with submerged vegetation, suggesting that the vegetation drag may be the inherent impact factor for incipient sediment motion in vegetated open channel flow.
Keywords: Incipient sediment motion; Vegetation drag; Critical flow velocity

6. Impacts of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes and sediment yield determined using the SWAT model
Edivaldo Afonso de Oliveira Serr?o, Madson Tavares Silva, Thomás Rocha Ferreira, Lorena Concei??o Paiva de Ataide, Cleber Assis dos Santos, Aline Maria Meiguins de Lima, Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva, Francisco de Assis Salviano de Sous, Denis José Cardoso Gomes
Pages 54-69
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000196
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.04.002
Abstract: Land use and land cover (LULC) changes strongly affect local hydrology and sediment yields. The current study focused on a basin in the Brazilian Amazon and had the following three objectives: (1) to perform an effective diagnosis of flow and sediment yield, (2) to evaluate the impacts of LULC changes over the last 40 years on the hydro-sedimentological variables, and (3) to investigate the impacts of the possible trends or breaking points in the flow, surface runoff, and sediment yield series. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model validation showed that the simulated results were consistent with the data measured in the dynamic reproduction of flow seasonality. Furthermore, changes in LULC altered surface runoff, sediment yield, and flow according to the Mann-Kendall and Pettitt non-parametric tests. It was also observed that the sub-basins in which pastureland is predominant are more susceptible to increased surface runoff and sediment yield. According to trend and homogeneity tests, these sub-basins had break points in the time series of these variables. On the other hand, in the sub-basins whose land cover is predominantly forest, the time series is homogeneous and trendless. The current study highlighted the impacts that 40 years of LULC changes in an Amazonian basin had on hydro-sedimentological variables, which, in turn, can play an important role in changing the hydrological cycle, consequently these changes can also impact diverse human activities in the region, such as agribusiness, livestock, energy production, food security, and public water supply. Thus, it is concluded that the SWAT model is a good estimator of hydro-sedimentological processes in Amazonian basins and can be used by decision makers in the management of water and environmental resources.
Keywords: Hydrological modeling; Sediment yield; Amazon basin; SWAT model

7. Heavy mineral composition and texture of the recently formed fluvial delta sediment of Lake Nasser/Nubia, Egypt and Sudan
Omran E. Frihy, Essam A. Deabes, Abdelaleem A. Abudia, Ahamed Adawi
Pages 70-82
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000433
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.07.002 
Abstract: Surficial sediment samples collected from the recently formed fluvial delta in Lake Nasser/Nubia (Egypt and Sudan) in conjunction with data on bottom current and depth soundings are examined to interpret hydraulic-sorting processes and transport/depositional patterns. The ~500 km long northeastward-trending lake, lies within Egypt and Sudan, is created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964. The original grain-size distribution and heavy mineral compositions of these samples help to characterize the classical depositional features of the recently formed underwater delta-front and prodelta depocenters. Starting from the south, those delta-front deposits, which floor most of the narrow-shallow basin of Lake Nubia, are characterized by thick coarse-grained sandy deposits, rich in heavy minerals (averaged 12.8%). This delta-front is followed to the northeast by thin layers of prodelta mud, poor in heavy mineral contents (averaged 0.6%). These layers cover the entire broad basin of Lake Nasser. The northeasterly downslope fining-trend, along with a continuous decrease in heavy mineral composition, along the length of the lake, are attributable to processes of grain sorting, which take place due to contrasting densities and grain sizes. These processes lead to the concentration of heavy mineral placer, mostly in the delta-front samples. The sorting mechanism, in turn, is controlled by the interplay of unidirectional-directed northeastward current, physiographic characteristics of the lake, including topographic configuration, geometry (cross-section), and floor topography (slope gradient). In terms of mineral exploration, the highest proportion of mineral grades in the delta-front sediments is likely to be considered as a viable source for economic placers that require more planning initiatives for industrial and commercial evaluation.
Keywords: Heavy mineral; Fluvial delta sediments; Delta-front; Aswan high dam; Hydraulic-sorting processes

8. Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and associated risks of trace metals (As, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Hg) from a subtropical river, Gomti, Bangladesh
Abu Sayeed Shafiuddin Ahmed, Mohammad Belal Hossain, Saad Mohammad Omar Faruque Babu, Moshiur Rahman, JunSun, Mohammad Shafiqul Islam Sarker
Pages 83-96
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000421
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.07.001 
Abstract: Sediment samples from the Gomti River basin were investigated to determine and evaluate trace metal concentrations, their biological effect, and potential ecological and human health risks for adults and children. The mean concentrations of trace metals were organized in the descending order of mercury (Hg) (0.08 mg/kg) > chromium (Cr) (0.06 mg/kg) > lead (Pb) (0.05 mg/kg) > arsenic (As) (0.02 mg/kg) > cadmium (Cd) (0.01 mg/kg). The current study illustrated that metals were attributed to the area from natural sources and different anthropogenic sources especially from industries. However, the concentration levels were lower than the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on the effect-range classifications of threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Therefore, the concentration of the elements showed no adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms. The evaluated potential ecological risk index also revealed the low toxicity to the aquatic environment. Moreover, the applied sediment quality indices, geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and contamination severity index (CSI) suggested that the contamination levels of the elements were in the acceptable range, and the contamination had not notably impacted on the sediment quality. The risk index (HI) concerning age groups was significantly less than the threshold limit of 1 indicating that the contamination had no non-carcinogenic risk effect. The total carcinogenic risk (TCR) was less than a risk value of 1 × 10?4. Hence, the current study suggests that immediate remediation is not required due to an absence of alarming conditions in the study area. Proper monitoring of the attribution of the metal elements should be done for the betterment of human and environmental health. 
Keywords: Trace metals; Biological effects; Ecological risk; Human health risk; Gomti river; Bangladesh

9. Sediment dynamics in the mudbank of the Yangtze River Estuary under regime shift of source and sink
Dai Zhang; Weiming Xie; Jian Shen; Leicheng Guo; Yu Chen; Qing He
Pages 97-109
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000469
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.07.005 
Abstract: The southeastern portion of the Yangtze River Estuary (or Yangtze Estuary) was considered to be the deposition center and the mudbank of the Yangtze River Delta. As the fluvial sediment supply began to decline in the 1980s and the reduction accelerated after the completion of the Three Gorge Dam in 2003, more fluvial sediment was trapped decreasing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) environment in the river mouth area. Moreover, the accretion rate of the mudbank has slowed down in recent decades. In fact, the mudbank shrank and has faced a regime shift from sediment sink to source. A better understanding of the tidal-scale dynamics and spatial variability of the system is essential to explore the conversion of the sediment sources and sinks in the Yangtze Estuary affected by natural variations and human activities. Flow velocity, salinity, and suspended-sediment concentration during spring and neap tides were measured at three sites on the mudbank in July 1982 and July 2013. The variation in flow was not significant at all the sites measured in the study area from 1982 to 2013. However, the sediment dynamics changed remarkably over these three decades. The temporal distribution of the SSC increased in the bottom layer. The SSC was much larger during the early flood tide period in 2013. The tidal range increased by nearly 10% and the flood dominance increased in the study area from 1982 to 2013. The salinity dynamics underwent a transition from a stratified system in 1982 to a well-mixed system in 2013. The landward sediment budget increased remarkably from 1982 to 2013. The decreased fluvial sediment supply, increased flood dominance, well-mixed salinity, and increased tidal range were directly responsible for the larger landward sediment budget and more severe erosion in the mudbank in 2013. The current results reveal the flow and sediment dynamics during the conversion of the sediment sink to source. Furthermore, it was determined that the sediment-starved process in the estuarine environment, which occurred due to the reduction in the fluvial sediment, leads to an increased landward transport of sediment. The current study provides a clear understanding of the mechanisms governing the delta system transition in the mudbank of the Yangtze Estuary, which is useful for delta protection in the future.
Keywords: Sink-source shift; Fluvial sediment reduction; Sediment flux; Yangtze River Estuary

10. Characterizing and identifying bedforms in the wandering reach of the lower Yellow River
Yuanfeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Guanqing Shen
Pages 110-121
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000494
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.08.003
Abstract: The lower Yellow River (LYR) is a fully alluvial system with a fine-grained bed that has a high proportion of silt. Bathymetric survey data collected with a Multi-Beam Echo Sounder (MBES) from the wandering reach of the LYR indicates that the bedforms are characterized by large aspect ratios (wavelength/height) and low lee-side angles. Since the Xiaolangdi Reservoir (XLD) has been operational in the middle reach of the Yellow River, bedforms have been dominated by two-scales of dunes, that is, a frame of compound dunes with first-order dunes superimposed on the stoss and lee sides, which disappear during high sediment concentration floods that occur during the annual sediment and water regulation. The bedform formation regime has changed with dune beds having more chances, and upper regime beds having less chances, to form. Longitudinal profile data measured using a sounding-rod before the XLD began filling demonstrate that the bedforms were mainly dunes during low flows (less than 1200 m3/s) or upper regime beds during high-flows (larger than 2000 m3/s). A discriminator is proposed to describe the conditions for bedform formation and to predict the alluvial resistance which gives better results than those from Manning approach. When a bedform system is almost at equilibrium, the changes in the sediment concentrations versus the discriminator can be defined into three segments in the LYR.
Keywords: Bedform discrimination; Two-scales of dunes; Alluvial resistance; The lower Yellow River

11. Swimming behavior of juvenile silver carp near the separation zone of a channel confluence
Saiyu Yuan, Lei Xu, Hongwu Tang, Yang Xiao, Colin Whittaker
Pages 122-127
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000482
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.08.002
Abstract: Knowledge of locomotion of fish near river confluences is important for prediction of fish distribution in a river network. The flow separation zone near the confluence of a river network is a favorite habitat and feeding place for silver carp, which is one of the four major species of Chinese carp and usually provides positive rheotaxis to water flow. In the current study, a series of laboratory experiments were done to determine the behavioral responses of juvenile silver carp to the hydrodynamic forces near the separation zone of a channel confluence. The locomotion and trajectory of juvenile silver carp were recorded by infrared thermal imaging, while the flow velocity field near the separation zone was measured by a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A total of 60 juvenile silver carp were released near the separation zone among which 40 carp swam in the upstream direction. Amongst them, 24 carp swam to the tributary and the remaining 16 swam into the main channel. Almost all these 24 carp travelled initially along the boundary of the separation zone near the corner, where flow shear was strongest, and then swam to the tributary. Instead of avoiding zones of strong vorticity, they chose and followed a trajectory along which the flow vorticity was large. On encountering these vortical flows, they increased the tail-beat frequency and decreased the tail-beat amplitude to maintain body stability. These observations provide important knowledge on locomotion of fish near river confluences and are beneficial for the fish habitat protection.
Keywords: Channel confluence; Flow separation; Juvenile silver carp; Fish locomotion

12. Abiotic predictors of fine sediment accumulation in lowland rivers
Morwenna McKenzie, Judy England, Ian D.L. Foster, Martin A. Wilkes
Pages 128-137
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001627921000305
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.06.003 
Abstract: The delivery of excessive fine sediment (particles < 2 mm in diameter) to rivers can cause serious deleterious effects to aquatic ecosystems and is widely acknowledged to be one of the leading contributors to the degradation of rivers globally. Despite advances in using biological methods as a proxy, physical measures remain an important method through which fine sediment can be quantified. The aim of this study was to provide further insights into the environmental variables controlling sediment accumulation in lowland gravel bed rivers. We sampled 21 sites, during spring and autumn, selected to cover a gradient of excess fine sediment. Fine sediment was sampled using a range of methods including visual assessments, the disturbance method, and suspended sediment concentrations. A range of abiotic predictors was measured during sampling, and hydrological and antecedent flow indices were derived from local flow gauging station data. The results show reach scale visual estimates of fine sediment to be significantly and highly correlated with fully quantitative estimates of total surface sediment. Multivariate regression analysis showed that flow variables (regime, antecedent, and local flow characteristics) were strong predictors of deposited sediment metrics but poor predictors of suspended sediment. Organic content was shown to be relatively independent of total sediment quantity and is likely driven by other factors which influence the supply and breakdown of organic matter.
Keywords: Deposited sediment; Suspended sediment; Visual assessments; Disturbance; Sediment sampling

 

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