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Papers Published in the International Journal of Sediment Research
Release time: 2022-03-10

Volume 37, No.3, 2022 

Pages 287-410   (June 2021)

 

1. Detailed bed topography and sediment load measurements for two stepdown flows in a laboratory flume
Daniel Wren, Roger Kuhnle,·Tate Mcalpin, David Abraham, Keaton Jones
Pages 287-298

2. Spatio-temporal deposition profile of an experimentally produced turbidity current with a continuous suspension supply
Shun Nomura, Giovanni De Cesare, Mikito Furuichi, Yasushi Takeda, Hide Sakaguchi
Pages 299-306

3. Nutrients and organic matter in the surface sediment of a submerged macrophyte zone in a eutrophic lake: Implications for lake management
Jiancai Deng, Xin Lu, Weiping Hu, Zhihong Xu
Pages 307-316

4. Approximate velocity formula over mobile sediment bed induced by velocity-skewed waves and current
Xin Chen, Minghong Chen, Jingkai Wu, Haifei Liu, Chen Yang
Pages 317-327

5. Collar performance in bridge pier scour with debris accumulation
Hossein Hamidifar, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Shahabi-Haghighi, Yee Meng Chiew
Pages 328-334

6. Spatial distribution of trace elements associated with organic carbon along the Beiyun River basin, Beijing, China
Farhan Iftikhar, Shiliang Liu, Yongxiu Sun, Yixuan Liu, Muhammad Imran
Pages 335-345

7. Sorption and desorption behavior of residual antidepressants and caffeine in freshwater sediment and sewage sludge
Ismael Laurindo Costa Junior, Christiane Schinneider Machado, Adelmo Lowe Pletsch, Yohandra Reyes Torres
Pages 346-354

8. Spatial distribution and comparative evaluation of phosphorus release rate in benthic sediments of an estuary dam
Yongsik Song, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Chang-Min Shin, Dong-Heui Kwak
Pages 355-369

9. The off-site implications of deforestation on sedimentation rates and pollution in Abkenar open water (Anzali Lagoon, Caspian Sea) using radionuclide techniques and sediment quality indices
Mohammadreza Gharibreza, Mohammad Zaman, Mahmood Arabkhedri, Shahriar Sobh-Zahedi
Pages 370-382

10. Predictability performance enhancement for suspended sediment in rivers: Inspection of newly developed hybrid adaptive neuro-fuzzy system model
Rana Muhammad Adnan, Zaher Mundher Yaseen, Salim Heddamd Shamsuddin Shahid, Aboalghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki, Ozgur Kisi
Pages 383-398

11. Flow-induced vegetation uprooting in a meandering bend: Experimental investigation
Donatella Termini, Alice Di Leonardo
Pages 399-410

1. Detailed bed topography and sediment load measurements for two stepdown flows in a laboratory flume
Daniel Wren, Roger Kuhnle,·Tate Mcalpin, David Abraham, Keaton Jone
Pages 287-298   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.11.002
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000731
Abstract: Streams and rivers, particularly smaller ones, often do not maintain steady flow rates for long enough to reach equilibrium conditions for sediment transport and bed topography. In particular, streams in small watersheds may be subject to rapidly changing hydrographs, and relict bedforms from previous high flows can cause further disequilibrium that complicates the prediction of sediment transport rates. In order to advance the understanding of how bedforms respond to rapid changes in flow rate, a series of flume experiments were performed where the flow was reduced rapidly from equilibrium conditions. Sediment transport rates and bed elevation data across the flume and over a 15-meter-long test section were collected during the experiments to allow detailed examination of evolving bedform dynamics. It was found that relict bedforms stopped moving completely after flow reductions, and the mode of sediment transport was shifted to small bedforms that arose rapidly over dune stoss sections throughout the test section. The changes in sediment transport with time as the sand bed adjusted to the new flow rate was found to agree with predictions based on the relations proposed in Wren et al. (2020). Wavelet analysis is used to visualize changes in length and amplitude scales during the bed transition process. 
Keywords: Sediment transport; Bedforms; Dunes; Wavelets

2. Spatio-temporal deposition profile of an experimentally produced turbidity current with a continuous suspension supply
Shun Nomura, Giovanni De Cesare, Mikito Furuichi, Yasushi Takeda, Hide Sakaguchi
Pages 299-306   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.11.004
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000810
Abstract: A turbidity current is a turbulent, particle-laden gravity current that is driven by density differences resulting from the presence of suspended sediment particles. The current travels downslope, bearing a large amount of sediment over a great distance, and forms fluvial and submarine bedforms. Knowledge of the spatio-temporal deposition profile of turbidity-deposited sediment is important for a better understanding of sediment transport by turbidity currents. In the current study, the depositional process of experimentally produced quasi-steady turbidity currents in an inclined flume was investigated using an electrical-resistance-based depositmeter. It was found that the amount of sediment deposited along the flume bottom increases linearly with time at a specific rate, and decreases exponentially in the downstream direction. Inspired by this observation, the mass conservation law was modified for the suspension layer and a simple theoretical model was proposed involving two parameters, the initial sedimentation rate and the decay constant. The proposed model reproduces the observed data from the flume experiment with high accuracy, and is consistent with the sediment transport distance of a natural example, the Bengal Fan. It was concluded that the two parameters that govern the sedimentation process are the key to estimating the deposition profile of fluvial systems.
Keywords: Turbidity current; Deposition process; Mass conservation law; Electrical-resistance-based depositmeter; Spatio-temporal investigation; Flume experiment

3. Nutrients and organic matter in the surface sediment of a submerged macrophyte zone in a eutrophic lake: Implications for lake management
Jiancai Deng, Xin Lu, Weiping Hu, Zhihong Xu
Pages 307-316   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.11.003
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000743
Abstract: Little is known about the distribution and risk levels of nutrients and organic matter (OM) in the surface sediment of shallow submerged macrophyte-dominated lakes. In the current study, sixty surface sediment samples were collected from Xukou Bay, a typical submerged macrophyte-dominated zone in Lake Taihu, China. A 60-day degradation experiment of Potamogeton malaianus, a dominant species in the bay, was done in the laboratory. The results demonstrated that the ranges of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and OM in the surface sediment of the bay were 262.2–2,979.6 mg/kg, 41.2–728.7 mg/kg, 8.6–150.0 mg/kg, 4.4–36.4 mg/kg, and 3.7–50.2 g/kg, respectively. The spatial distributions of TN, OM, and AN concentrations showed similar trends: The highest concentrations were present in the northeastern and southwestern zones, while the TP and AP concentrations were high in the northeastern, central, and southwestern zones. The heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of nutrients and OM in the surface sediment of the bay was associated with aquatic vegetation and anthropogenic activities. The comprehensive risk index and organic nitrogen index revealed that the surface sediment was moderately, interactively contaminated by TN and TP and by organic nitrogen. TN and OM in the northeastern zone were mainly derived from endogenous residues due to the decomposition of aquatic plants, while TN in the southwestern zone was primarily derived from agricultural wastewater. Consequently, targeted measures should be implemented to reduce TN and OM in the surface sediment of macrophyte-dominated lakes.
Keywords: Total nitrogen; Total phosphorus; Surface sediment; Submerged macrophyte-dominated zone; Eutrophic lake

4. Approximate velocity formula over mobile sediment bed induced by velocity-skewed waves and current
Xin Chen, Minghong Chen, Jingkai Wu, Haifei Liu, Chen Yang
Pages 317-327   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.11.001
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000718
Abstract: A velocity formula is proposed for flow over a mobile sediment bed induced by velocity-skewed waves and current. The formula is obtained by a separation of waves and current velocities and requires seven free variables related to free stream velocity and sediment characteristics. The formula includes two parts: (1) a wave part consisting of the free stream velocity and defect function, which considers phase lead, wave boundary layer thickness, and mobile bed level, and (2) a current part, which changes the wave part through the boundary layer thickness and mobile bed level, influenced by wave eddy viscosity. The wave part is superior to the current part such that the boundary layer characteristics are mainly determined by the waves. The wave process is divided into four quarter stages to model the asymmetries of parameters in velocity and acceleration. Under velocity-skewed waves and current conditions, velocity asymmetry and residual velocity are accounted for in the formula, especially the offshore residual velocity with a large phase lag and mobile bed effect with a small phase lag. Phase lead is shown to be non-constant in velocity-skewed oscillatory sheet flow and corresponds to an extra offshore residual velocity.
Keywords: Analytical approximate velocity; Mobile sediment bed; Sediment transport; Velocity asymmetry; Wave and current

5. Collar performance in bridge pier scour with debris accumulation
Hossein Hamidifar, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Shahabi-Haghighi, Yee Meng Chiew
Pages 328-334   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.10.002
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000688
Abstract: The mechanism of bridge pier scour becomes more complex in the presence of debris accumulation upstream of the pier. While using countermeasures may be effective in reducing scour, their efficacy could be undermined in such a situation. The current study investigates the effectiveness of using a collar in the presence of different types of floating debris accumulation in reducing scour around a cylindrical bridge pier with non-cohesive bed sediment. The experimental results reveal that using a collar can reduce the scour depth by up to 39% when compared to that without the collar in the absence of debris accumulation under the same flow conditions. Also, the collar's efficiency is reduced by up to 25% when debris accumulation is present. However, depending on the relative size of the accumulated debris and collar, the effectiveness of collars may be increased as a pier-scour protection device. A new parameter, which is defined as the Debris Protrusion Ratio (DPR), is used to quantify the effect of debris layout size on scour depth. Moreover, a semi-empirical equation that may be used to predict the depth of the scour hole that forms around cylindrical collar-fitted piers with floating debris accumulation is proposed. The equation's performance is evaluated using the available data in the literature. Based on the analysis, the current study shows that the accuracy of the proposed equation is satisfactory in predicting the maximum scour depth.
Keywords: Bridge pier; Scour; Debris; Collar; Blockage

6. Spatial distribution of trace elements associated with organic carbon along the Beiyun River basin, Beijing, China
Farhan Iftikhar, Shiliang Liu, Yongxiu Sun, Yixuan Liu, Muhammad Imran
Pages 335-345   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.10.005
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S100162792100072X
Abstract: Pollution resulting from terrestrial and aquatic trace elements has become a severe problem across the world. Organic carbon (OC) content has a high affinity for metallic contaminants and it acts as a significant sink for trace elements. The decomposition of OC content directly influences the bioavailability of trace elements. The decomposition of OC content and OC distribution vary spatially, these processes affect the release of trace elements and need further research. In the current study, sediment samples from the surface sediment along Beiyun River (Section 1 to Section 4 from upper to lower reaches), which is situated in the rapidly urbanized Beijing metropolis, were measured for OC, moisture, hardness, and trace elements. The OC contents were found to have a substantial difference among all four river sections along the urbanized river gradient. Whereas the higher OC contents were found in Sections 2 (Urbanized uplands) and 3 (farmland) compared to those in Sections 1 (forest) and 4 (farmland and part of constructed areas). On the other hand, the highest value of the correlation coefficient was found among the different values of trace elements and OC content in the riverine zone of the Beiyun River basin. OC contents play a vital role in the transformation and origin of trace elements in the surface sediment of the Beiyun River basin. The One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to compare the means of OC and trace elements at different sections indicating no significant difference. However, source identification of trace elements indicated that a geogenic source was responsible for higher contents of As and (69.95%). Simultaneously, the natural OC, agricultural activities, and industrial waste contributed about (21.10%) towards the Cd and Zn, and about 10% for Cr and Cu. The current study concludes that the absolute principle component analysis–multiple linear regression (APCA-MLR) method can be successfully used to investigate the trace elements (Zn, Ni, Pb, Mn, Cd, Cu, and As) interactions through OC content resulting in determination of the various sources of contamination to cause negative environmental impacts on the ecosystem and human health. So, the current study provides a baseline for a quantitative evaluation of trace elements under different sediment of OC contents.
Keywords: Organic carbon content; Trace element; Spatial distribution; Source apportionment; Absolute principle component analysis–multiple linear regression (APCA-MLR)

7. Sorption and desorption behavior of residual antidepressants and caffeine in freshwater sediment and sewage sludge
Ismael Laurindo Costa Junior, Christiane Schinneider Machado, Adelmo Lowe Pletsch, Yohandra Reyes Torres
Pages 346-354   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.10.004
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000706
Abstract: The use of antidepressants is widespread in modern times. Thus, they present a potential risk for ecosystems due to occurrence in domestic sewage containing unaltered metabolites and structures, even after the treatment plants have processed the sewage. The current research investigated the sorption and desorption of antidepressants (citalopram, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and amitriptyline) and caffeine from freshwater sediment and sewage sludge. The samples of freshwater sediment were collected in a river spring in an area with few anthropogenic sources of pollution and samples of sewage sludge were taken from stabilization ponds of a sewage treatment. The matrices were mainly composed of organic fractions, sediment of humic nature, and aliphatic biomolecules in sludges. The presence of silt and clay in the sediment proved to be important for the sorption process when compared to the flocs and colloidal structure of the sludge. The kinetic study indicated pseudo-first order behavior. The Freundlich isotherm was satisfactorily used in the interpretation of sorption and desorption for all analytes and matrices. The high percentages obtained for desorption suggest analyte mobility, which is more intense in the sludge than in the sediment since each matrix has a different composition. It can be considered that the information obtained here reinforces the ecotoxicological concern with respect to pharmacological residues in the environment, as processes of retention by sorption in the sludge and the sediment have been confirmed, as well as the preferential partition of some analytes by the aqueous phase.
Keywords: Emerging pollutants; Drugs; Persistence; Partition; Mobility; Sorption

8. Spatial distribution and comparative evaluation of phosphorus release rate in benthic sediments of an estuary dam
Yongsik Song, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Chang-Min Shin, Dong-Heui Kwak
Pages 355-369   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.08.005
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000561
Abstract: A series of experiments and simulations were performed to ascertain the rate at which phosphorus is released using a water quality model in Saemangeum Lake, an artificially constructed lake located in an estuary. The general inflow of seawater once a day contributed to the formation of a halocline in the lake water, which caused variation in the vertical concentration of dissolved oxygen. The halocline was mainly observed in the deep downstream regions of Saemangeum Lake that are close to the open sea. In contrast, the shallower regions upstream, which are under the influence of pollutant-loading from upstream rivers, exhibited high concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and Chl-a, resulting in lower water quality than the downstream regions. Laboratory experiments investigating the release of phosphorus at five representative locations showed that the upstream release flux, where the halocline was weaker, was higher than that downstream, where the initial level of phosphorus sedimentation was high. In particular, a need for an accurate evaluation method for the release of phosphorus at each site was suggested as slight differences were obtained depending on the estimation method used at each representative location. The results of the phosphorus release experiments led to the use of time-weighted integration (TWI), terminated time evaluation, and statistical mean value; the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code–National Institute of Environment Research model, a widely used water quality model for studying retention watersheds, was applied to the simulation of hydraulic and water quality characteristics for the Saemangeum Lake and its surrounding waters. The result of the water quality simulation indicated the highest reproducibility for release-time TWI so that TWI values were more useful in predicting phosphorus concentrations and the subsequent management of water quality.
Keywords: Eutrophication; Phosphorus release; Salinity; Sediments; Water quality simulation; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code–National Institute of Environment Research model (EFDC-NIER)

9. The off-site implications of deforestation on sedimentation rates and pollution in Abkenar open water (Anzali Lagoon, Caspian Sea) using radionuclide techniques and sediment quality indices
Mohammadreza Gharibreza, Mohammad Zaman, Mahmood Arabkhedri, Shahriar Sobh-Zahedi
Pages 370-382   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.08.006
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000585
Abstract: Abkenar open water (AOW) has a 35 km2 distribution and is the largest part of the Anzali Lagoon in the southern coastal zone of the Caspian Sea. The effects of deforestation in the upstream basin of the AOW were assessed by measuring the rate of sedimentation, sediment contamination, and ecological risk for aquatic life and end-users using radioisotopes Cesium-137 and Lead-210. The chronology of the AOW sediment column was studied using the Constant Rate of Supply model. Correlations between environmental changes and the sedimentary regime of the study area highlight the contribution of the AOW authorized international and local wood harvesting companies pre-and-post 1950 in the catchment in terms of the rate of sediment supply and the influx of toxic metals. Historical evidence shows that two specific layers formed during World Wars I and II with the mean rates of 0.185 ± 0.04 (±STD) and 0.32 ± 0.02 kg/(m·y), respectively. The highest influx of alkali elements and toxic metals (nickel, cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper) into the basin occurred in 1945. Two layers of gray mud (16–50 cm) and organic-rich dark loss mud (0–16 cm) correlated well with the programmed wood harvesting projects. These layers accumulated from 1953 to 2000 with a mean rate of 0.6 ± 0.2 and 2 ± 0.7 kg/(m2·y). Thus, aquatic life and end-users have been exposed to moderate to extremely high levels of toxic metals and a moderate level of contamination since the 1950s.
Keywords: Abkenar open water; Accumulation rate; Anzali Lagoon; Sediment contamination; CRS model; Radioisotopes

10. Predictability performance enhancement for suspended sediment in rivers: Inspection of newly developed hybrid adaptive neuro-fuzzy system model
Rana Muhammad Adnan, Zaher Mundher Yaseen, Salim Heddamd Shamsuddin Shahid, Aboalghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki, Ozgur Kisi
Pages 383-398   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.10.001
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001627921000676
Abstract: Reliable modeling of river sediments transport is important as it is a defining factor of the economic viability of dams, the durability of hydroelectric-equipment, river susceptibility to pollution, suitability for navigation, and potential for aesthetics and fish habitat. The capability of a new machine learning model, fuzzy c-means based neuro-fuzzy system calibrated using the hybrid particle swarm optimization-gravitational search algorithm (ANFIS-FCM-PSOGSA) in improving the estimation accuracy of river suspended sediment loads (SSLs) is investigated in the current study. The outcomes of the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the fuzzy c-means based neuro-fuzzy system calibrated using particle swarm optimization (ANFIS-FCM-PSO), ANFIS-FCM, and sediment rating curve (SRC) models. Various input combinations involving lagged river flow (Q) and suspended sediment (S) values were used for model development. The effect of Q and S on the model's accuracy also was assessed by including the difference between lagged Q and S values as inputs. The model performance was assessed using the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), and coefficient of determination (R2) and several graphical comparison methods. The results showed that the proposed model enhanced the prediction performance of the ANFIS-FCM-PSO (or ANFIS-FCM) models by 8.14% (1.72%), 14.7% (5.71%), 12.5% (2.27%), and 25.6% (1.86%), in terms of the RMSE, MAE, NSE and R2, respectively. The current study established the potential of the proposed ANFIS-FCM-PSOGSA model for simulation of the cumulative sediment load. The modeling results revealed the potential effects of the river flow lags on the sediment transport quantification.
Keywords: Suspended sediment load; Adaptive neuro-fuzzy system; Particle swarm optimization; Gravitational search algorithm

11. Flow-induced vegetation uprooting in a meandering bend: Experimental investigation
Donatella Termini, Alice Di Leonardo
Pages 399-410   PURCHASE PDF
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2021.10.003
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S100162792100069X
Abstract: Vegetation uprooting is a complex process which depends on many interrelated factors. In this paper, attention is focused on the flow-induced uprooting in river bends, where the flow characteristics vary as effected by the channel's curvature and its continuous changing in the downstream direction. Results are presented by an experimental work done in a high-amplitude meandering flume with mature herbaceous vegetation on the bed. In the first part of the paper, the variation along the bend of the geometrical (length, thickness, and radical architecture) and the mechanical (resistance force) characteristics of the roots are analyzed. In the second part of the paper, the transition from the condition of vegetation distributed on the bed to the condition of vegetation uprooted by the flow is experimentally examined. The results show that the flow-induced uprooting varies along the bend depending on the roots' geometrical and mechanical characteristics which are, in turn, influenced by the variation of the water surface elevation along the bend itself. It has been found that lower values of the resistance force occur at the apex section where the roots are characterized by higher values of length and lower values of thickness and have radical apparatuses characterized by limited encumbrance, a high number of roots, and low bushyness. The flow-induced uprooting especially develops close to the outer bank along the channel reach between the bend entrance and the apex section, where the root resistance force and the water surface slope tend to decrease in value.
Keywords: Physical experiment; River bend; Resistance; Flow disturbance; Vegetation; Uprooting

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